The Creole Slave Ship Revolt
The Creole revolt took place in November, 1841, on an American ship carrying 135 slaves from Virginia to Louisiana. The rebels led by Madison Washington took the ship to the British port of Nassau in the Bahamas where they were declared by the British to be free. The incident became an issue in the negotiation of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty and the British agreed to compensate the owners of the ship.
This summary of the revolt is based on Howard Jones, "The Peculiar Institution and National Honor: The Case of the Creole Slave Revolt," Civil War History, 1975, pp. 28-50.
This account of the revolt is from The Late Contemplated Insurrection in Charleston, South Carolina, published in New York, 1850.
This account of the revolt is quoted from R. Edward Lee, "Madison Washington, Slave Mutineer," Blacfax, Winter/Spring 1998.
This introduction by Robin MacDonald to The Heroic Slave written by Frederick Douglass in 1852 argues that Douglass romanticised the leader of the Creole revolt.
This pamphlet The Duty of the Free States or Remarks Suggested by the Case of the Creole published in Boston in 1842 by William Channing refuted the American claims that the property of U.S. slave owners should be protected in foreign ports, from African American Odyssey exhibit at Library of Congress.
- Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American seamen in the age of sail. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1997. 310 p.,  p. of plates : ill., maps ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. -296) and index. Subject: Afro-American merchant mariners -- History Sailing ships -- United States -- History. ISBN 0674076249 CL Book Stacks VK221 .B65 1997
- Brown, William Wells. The Negro in the American Rebellion. New York: Citadel Press, 1971. 389 p., Reprint of the 1867 ed., introduced and annotated by William Edward Farrison. Includes bibliographical references. Subject: United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Afro-Americans ISBN 0806502320 SSH Stacks E540.N3 B8 1867ab
- Harding, Vincent. There is a River: the Black struggle for freedom in America. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981. 416 p.,  p. of plates : ill. ; 25 cm. Includes index Bibliography: p. -401. Subject: Afro-Americans -- Civil rights Afro-Americans -- History United States -- Race relations. ISBN 015189342X
- Jones, Howard. To the Webster-Ashburton Treaty: a study in Anglo-American relations, 1783-1843. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977. 251 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. Includes index Bibliography: p. 221-237. Subject : Washington, Treaty of, 1842 Northeast boundary of the United States United States -- Foreign relations -- Great Britain Great Britain -- Foreign relations -- United States Corp author United States. Treaties, etc., 1841-1845 (Tyler). Boundary, slave trade, and extradition. ISBN 0807813060 CL Book Stacks 327.73041 J77t
- Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. 310 p. 22 cm."Note on bibliographical literature": p. 251-252. Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 253-292) Subject: Abolitionists Antislavery movements -- United States
- Sale, Maggie Montesinos. The Slumbering Volcano: American slave ship revolts and the production of rebellious masculinity. Durham, N.C. : Duke University Press, 1997. 264 p. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. -256) and index. Subject: Slave insurrections -- United States -- Sources National characteristics, American -- History -- 19th century -- Sources Masculinity -- United States -- History -- 19th century -- Sources White supremacy movements -- United States -- History -- 19th century -- Sources Slavery in literature. ISBN 0822319837 CL Book Stacks 305.896073 S163s 1997
revised 2/9/2000 by Schoenherr